Lung Cancer

Cancer Care Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is the growth of abnormal

cells that begin in one or both lungs, often

in the cells that line the air passages. The

abnormal cells divide more quickly than

normal cells and form tumours.

What is Lung Cancer?

Lung cancer is the growth of abnormal cells that begin in one or both lungs, often in the cells that line the air passages. The abnormal cells divide more quickly than normal cells and form tumours. The tumour increases in size and eventually learns to spread (metastasise) to other parts of the body via the blood stream.

Primary lung cancer starts in the lungs, while secondary lung cancer begins somewhere else (for example breast or bowel cancer) and metastasises before reaching the lungs. Primary and secondary lung cancer are considered different types of cancers and not treated in the same way.

There are two main types of primary lung cancer:  ‘small cell’ and ‘non-small cell’.

Small Cell Lung Cancer When cancer cells of this type are looked at under a microscope they are very small, hence the name. Small Cell Lung Cancer can be fast-growing and quick spreading.

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (there are 3 types of this cancer)

Squamous cell carcinoma: This is the most common type of lung cancer, developing in the cells that line the airways (often caused by smoking).

Adenocarcinoma: develops in the lining of the airways and comes from the cells that produce mucus (phlegm).

Large Cell Carcinoma: sometimes called undifferentiated carcinoma and gets its name from the large, rounded cells that are seen when they are examined under a microscope.

About 15–20% (1 in 5) of lung cancers are small cell, the rest are non-small cell.

Mesothelioma Mesothelioma is a less common form of cancer that affects the membrane which covers the surface of the lungs and lines the inside of the chest (the pleura). It is commonly associated with exposure to asbestos which typically occurred 30-40 years before diagnosis.

Carcinoid Tumour Carcinoid tumours can sometimes develop in the lungs. These are a type of neuroendocrine cancer: your neuroendocrine system is a network of glands that produce hormones and direct them into the bloodstream to affect organ function.

Rarer types of cancer, such as soft tissue sarcomas, can also develop in the lungs.

Causes
Symptoms
Diagnosis

Treatments available at Clatterbridge Private Clinic

Breast Cancer Care at Clatterbridge Private Clinic

Surgery

Surgery is performed on small early lung cancers that have not spread. It is suitable for fit and well patients with good lung function. If this is possible treatment for you, the surgeon will talk you through the operation and any risks that it carries.

MORE INFO

Breast Cancer Care at Clatterbridge Private Clinic

Chemotherapy

Some patients will be offered chemotherapy after their surgery to reduce the risk of the cancer recurring – this is known as adjuvant chemotherapy. There are many different types of chemotherapy for lung cancer. Your oncologist will talk you through the option that is best for you. This depends on the exact type of lung cancer that you have and your medical history. They will explain the side effects of treatment and how you can expect to feel on the treatment. They will also talk to you about what the treatment can be expected to achieve and the likelihood of this.

MORE INFO

Breast Cancer Care at Clatterbridge Private Clinic

Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy uses the body’s own immune system to target the cancer. It is used both as the first treatment and after chemotherapy, depending on your exact type of lung cancer. A specific test (PDL1) will be performed on your biopsy to see if this treatment is the right one for your cancer. Your oncologist will explain whether immunotherapy is suitable for you or not and what the potential side effects may be. They will also talk to you about what the treatment can be expected to achieve and the likelihood of this.

The drugs used include;

  • Pembrolizumab
  • Nivolumab
  • Atezolizumab

MORE INFO

Breast Cancer Care at Clatterbridge Private Clinic

Radiotherapy

Radiotherapy uses strong x-rays to target cancer. It can be used in high doses for control or cure of cancers, but also in lower doses to help to slow down the growth of cancer that cannot be cured. Radiotherapy specifically targets a problem area using x-rays beams that are shaped specifically to cover the area to be treated and to avoid as much normal tissue as possible.

At Clatterbridge Private Clinic, we have access to the most up to date techniques and radiotherapy machines. Delivered at Clatterbridge Cancer Centre, the Private Clinic has the support and experience of the physicists, radiographers and clinicians that deliver hundreds of radiotherapy treatments every day.

MORE INFO

Surgery
Breast Cancer Care at Clatterbridge Private Clinic

Surgery

Surgery is performed on small early lung cancers that have not spread. It is suitable for fit and well patients with good lung function. If this is possible treatment for you, the surgeon will talk you through the operation and any risks that it carries.

MORE INFO

Chemotherapy
Breast Cancer Care at Clatterbridge Private Clinic

Chemotherapy

Some patients will be offered chemotherapy after their surgery to reduce the risk of the cancer recurring – this is known as adjuvant chemotherapy. There are many different types of chemotherapy for lung cancer. Your oncologist will talk you through the option that is best for you. This depends on the exact type of lung cancer that you have and your medical history. They will explain the side effects of treatment and how you can expect to feel on the treatment. They will also talk to you about what the treatment can be expected to achieve and the likelihood of this.

MORE INFO

Immunotherapy
Breast Cancer Care at Clatterbridge Private Clinic

Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy uses the body’s own immune system to target the cancer. It is used both as the first treatment and after chemotherapy, depending on your exact type of lung cancer. A specific test (PDL1) will be performed on your biopsy to see if this treatment is the right one for your cancer. Your oncologist will explain whether immunotherapy is suitable for you or not and what the potential side effects may be. They will also talk to you about what the treatment can be expected to achieve and the likelihood of this.

The drugs used include;

  • Pembrolizumab
  • Nivolumab
  • Atezolizumab

MORE INFO

Radiotherapy
Breast Cancer Care at Clatterbridge Private Clinic

Radiotherapy

Radiotherapy uses strong x-rays to target cancer. It can be used in high doses for control or cure of cancers, but also in lower doses to help to slow down the growth of cancer that cannot be cured. Radiotherapy specifically targets a problem area using x-rays beams that are shaped specifically to cover the area to be treated and to avoid as much normal tissue as possible.

At Clatterbridge Private Clinic, we have access to the most up to date techniques and radiotherapy machines. Delivered at Clatterbridge Cancer Centre, the Private Clinic has the support and experience of the physicists, radiographers and clinicians that deliver hundreds of radiotherapy treatments every day.

MORE INFO

Lung Cancer Specialists

Dr Allison Hall
Dr Allison Hall
Consultant in Clinical Oncology
Dr Anoop Haridass
Dr Anoop Haridass
Consultant in Clinical Oncology
Dr. Richard Griffiths
Dr Richard Griffiths
Consultant in Medical Oncology
Dr Angel Garcia Alonso
Dr Angel Garcia Alonso
Consultant in Clinical Oncology
Dr Olusola Faluyi
Dr Olusola Faluyi
Consultant in Medical Oncology
Dr Eswar Chinnamani
Dr Eswar Chinnamani
Consultant in Clinical Oncology
Professor Michael Brada
Prof. Michael Brada
Professor of Radiation Oncology & Honorary Consultant in Clinical Oncology